Yantu Gongcheng Xuebao/Chinese Journal of Geotechnical Engineering http://ytgcxb.periodicales.com/index.php/CJGE en-US Yantu Gongcheng Xuebao/Chinese Journal of Geotechnical Engineering Melanoma Diagnosis System using Artificial Neural Networks http://ytgcxb.periodicales.com/index.php/CJGE/article/view/218 <p>In today's era, melanoma is one of the most precarious and deadliest of any other type of skin cancer. Both Benign and Malignant Melanoma, if detection of malignant melanoma at the earliest stage could be reducing the mortality rate. Many diagnostic existing systems play important role in early detection of malignant melanoma and provide the opportunity to helpful dermatologists in the classification of features from skin lesion images, which are not visible to the naked eye. This paper is intended to introduce a system that incorporates digital image processing approaches and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to enhance the successful of survival rate and considerably to reduce the efforts and time consumption of dermatologists and patients utilizes for the classification of Malignant Melanoma (MM) early stage. The diagnosing methodology concentrates on Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) to extract skin lesions in clinical images, subsequently feed forward neural networks to classifier of malignant melanoma vs. benign melanoma on real melanoma images. Experimental results illustrates that the fuzzification of feature modelling provide good results in term of sensitivity (74.6%) with the specificity 76.2% and classification accuracy of (75.3%).&nbsp; The system can be used as an effective an inexpensive tool to assist dermatologist for diagnosis accuracy as well as the time consuming and costs.</p> Raafat K. Oubida Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-13 2022-12-13 44 12 1 8 The Relationship between Porosity and Strength for Porous Concrete http://ytgcxb.periodicales.com/index.php/CJGE/article/view/219 <p>Our Research “The relationship between porosity and strength for porous concrete” is a&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; pervious cement, which has pores to permit penetration of water and air, is being utilized as one of the answers for fighting the issues prompted by urbanization. To assess the fundamental variables influencing the exhibition credits of pervious concrete, a sum of 24 pervious substantial gatherings with changed mortar volumes and water/concrete proportions were made for porosity, water porousness and 3D shape strength estimations. In view of the experimental outcomes and relapse examination, it was found that interconnected porosity assumes significant part in the water penetrability, while the open porosity and W/C proportion are together the key elements administering the 3D shape strength</p> Shree Ram Malani* & Dr. Rakesh Kumar Pandey Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-13 2022-12-13 44 12 9 16 Pavement Evaluation and applications of Geo textiles in Pavements http://ytgcxb.periodicales.com/index.php/CJGE/article/view/221 <p>Geotextiles have been generally advanced for asphalt structure. Notwithstanding, there is an absence of very much instrumented, full-scale tests to explore the impact of geotextile support on the asphalt plan. In this review, full-scale sped up tests were led on eight paths of asphalt test segments. the bunches of indoor and open air explores, a few critical specialized issues in development of the Desert Thruway have been tackled sufficiently, based on extraordinary accomplishments of the examinations in regards of dry compaction on sand base, plan boundaries, structure mix of subgrade and asphalt, adjustment examination of sand base reinforced with geotextile and a total arrangement of development procedures. Utilizing geotextiles in optional streets to balance out powerless subgrades has been a very much acknowledged practice throughout the course of recent years. Two plan techniques were utilized to evaluate the enhancements of utilizing geotextiles in asphalts Nonetheless, according to a prudent perspective, a total life cycle cost examination (LCCA), which incorporates expenses for organizations as well as expenses for clients, is earnestly expected to survey the advantages of utilizing geotextile in optional street adaptable asphalt. Two plan strategies were utilized to measure the enhancements of utilizing geotextiles in asphalts. In this review, an exhaustive life cycle cost examination structure was created and used to evaluate the underlying and the future expense of 25 delegate low volume street plan choices. The sub grade should be steady, enduring, appropriately emptied and free out of volume changes because of variety in dampness. If not, it prompts disappointment of asphalt. Typically, asphalt flops because of the reasons, for example, primary, utilitarian, or materials disappointment, or a mix of these. However, in the review region, it is seen that, the asphalt disappointment is under the class of primary disappointment</p> Dr. Ravindra D Nalawade, Prof. (Dr.) B.K. Sarkar, Prof. (Dr.) Reena Singh Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-13 2022-12-13 44 12 11 22 Geotechnical Characterization of Soil Slopes a Tool in Determining http://ytgcxb.periodicales.com/index.php/CJGE/article/view/222 <p>Planning the math of soil slant is a powerful treatment for forestalling slant disappointment. The most effective method to manage the vulnerabilities engaged with soil boundaries in geotechnical configuration is a primary worry of geotechnical engineers. In this review, a vigorous geotechnical plan for soil slants (RGDS) approach was proposed, in which the Vulnerability Hypothesis was acquainted with depict unequivocally the vulnerabilities engaged with soil boundaries. The unsure unwavering quality is frequently used to depict the gamble of slant disappointment. The plan strength depicting the harshness between the variety in the framework reaction and the variety of information dubious soil boundaries was assessed by the sign to-commotion proportion. The targets of this plan are to augment the plan strength, limit the unearthing cost, and assurance the security (expand the questionable dependability). Consequently, the RGDS was figured out as a multiobjective enhancement, and the ideal plan can be resolved in light of the ideas of Pareto front and knee point. The proposed RGDS approach was represented through a mathematical instance of a two-layer slant plan. The mathematical outcomes show that the RGDS approach isn't simply more instinctive and simpler to follow yet additionally more computationally effective.</p> Dr. Ravindra D Nalawade, Prof. (Dr.) Reena Singh, Prof. (Dr.) B.K. Sarkar Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-13 2022-12-13 44 12 23 29 Stabilization of Soil using Waste Plastic Fibre and Kitchen Waste http://ytgcxb.periodicales.com/index.php/CJGE/article/view/224 <p>Far reaching soils are known for their volume changes because of variance in the dampness content of the regular ground. This volume change makes tremendous annihilation numerous frameworks. To stay away from such harms, broad soils ought to be all around treated with the goal that they become protected against bearing limit disappointment and extreme settlement. Likewise, wherever plastic natural contamination is a basic issue, which needs a legitimate method of usage. This concentrate basically pointed toward using waste plastic materials with lime as subgrade asphalt materials, which is practical and harmless to the ecosystem. Plastic water bottles are utilized as support with lime to work on the versatility and strength properties of the extensive soils. Different research facility tests are directed utilizing plastic waste strips with 0.245%, 0.15%, 0.705%, and 1% extents as soil support and consistent 5% of lime. At long last, huge enhancements in CBR, unconfined compressive strength, and free swell are seen at 5% lime and 0.715% plastic waste strips. This investigation discovered that balancing out sweeping soil utilizing plastic waste strips and lime affects the versatility and strength boundaries of the dirt. This strategy assists with decreasing plastic contamination and limit the expense of stabilizers used to balance out the subgrade soil.</p> Dr. Ravindra D Nalawade, Prof. (Dr.) Reena Singh, Prof. (Dr.) B.K. Sarkar Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-13 2022-12-13 44 12 30 36 Geotechnical Characterization of Soil and Tool in Determining http://ytgcxb.periodicales.com/index.php/CJGE/article/view/225 <p>To work on the comprehension of such floodplain silt and deciding the legitimacy of the tests, a broad series of multifunctional seismic piezocone tests with pore pressure scattering stage have been performed and enhanced with traditional borings, standard infiltration, lab testing, etc. Sounding outcomes from SCPTU were utilized to decide the stratigraphic profiles and the dirt attributes of two dock destinations. An examination of the exhausting and research center outcomes with the CPTU profiles showed that the CPTU gave brilliant data on soil stratigraphy and great direction for assurance of conduct and designing ramifications of late Yangtze Waterway floodplain. At an area where nearby connections in light of current SCPTU don't exist, strategies for assessing coefficient of earth tension very still (K0), water driven porousness (kh), and identical solidness (G0) related with span establishment configuration are introduced, thought about, and confirmed. Results likewise represent the intricacy and changeability of the floodplain stratigraphy and soil properties, and that implies that the ideas in this study ought to be refreshed when more nearby experience is acquired. This contextual investigation recommends that such upgraded seismic piezocone test ought to be considered as a likely device and the instrument of best option in site portrayal programs for plan of extensions established on muddled soils in China.</p> Dr. D. S. Aswar, Prof. (Dr.) B.K. Sarkar, Prof. (Dr.) Reena Singh Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-13 2022-12-13 44 12 37 43 A Study Of The Impact Of Steel And Coir Fiber In Coconut Shell As The Coarse Aggregate Of Modified Concrete http://ytgcxb.periodicales.com/index.php/CJGE/article/view/226 <p>The results of the best mix design for the mechanical and durability properties of the mixes of Coconut Shell + Fly ash + Coir Fiber Reinforced Concrete (CSFCC) and Coconut Shell + Fly ash + Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete (CSFCS) are discussed in this chapter. The findings of tests on the characteristics of CS aggregate materials and test mixes for enhancing the strength of CS concrete are presented in this chapter. The following stage is to create a series of trial mixes with the maximum strength feasible after the mechanical characteristics of CS aggregates have been established. In the trial mix preparation, adjustments were made to the fine aggregate, CS aggregate, super plasticizer, and water-binder ratios. The best performing mixture out of a total of 17 experimental mixes was chosen for mechanical examination.&nbsp; Two different mixes are made, one with coarse aggregate made of coconut shell (CSFCC) and the other with coarse aggregate made of conventional material (CSFCS). Class F fly ash is used to replace 0, 10, 20, and 30% of the cement, respectively, in weight terms. The CSFCC and CSFCS Mixes possessed properties such slump, density, compressive strength, tensile strength, that were both fresh and hardened.</p> K.Rakesh, Dr.K.Ravichandran Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-13 2022-12-13 44 12 44 53 Polymer Modified Bituminous Concrete Mixes with Additives: A Performance Optimization Approach http://ytgcxb.periodicales.com/index.php/CJGE/article/view/227 <p>For its users, an effective road transportation system offers a high degree of service. The most frequent and significant mode of inland transportation is thought to be roads. Development of the nation's infrastructure for asphalt roads is one of the key economic sectors. Modifiers that come in solid forms are typically used to modify asphalt. The use of such materials is restricted by high softening and melting temperatures, the long-term blending of polymers, rubbers, and latex with asphalt at high temperatures, and the phase separation of polymers from asphalt, in addition to the lack of locally available resources. As a result, PMBs are expensive. Asphalt is simple to mix with liquid polymers at a low temperature and for a brief period of time.The nation's road development plans, which will require significant resources in terms of money, labour, and materials, will focus not just on building new roads but also on enhancing and extending the life of the ones that already exist. Additionally, liquid polymers have been utilised to stabilise soil. In this work, a new modifier called Vinyl Acrylic Copolymer (liquid form) is used to create modified binder mixtures that are both cost-effective and high-performing and may be used to build and maintain asphalt roadways. Using 0.5 percent of a co-polymer of vinyl and acrylic acetate functional groups in liquid polymer-1, the objective of increasing bitumen characteristics is accomplished (LP1). Liquid polymers with bitumen binder have the benefit of being simple to combine with bitumen at a relatively low temperature. Improved compatibility of polymer with bitumen was obtained as there is no phase separation. To evaluate the impact of modification on the characteristics of VG-30, polymer modified asphalt composition was described in accordance with IRC: SP: 53-2010. According to the MoRTH 5th revision of 2013, LP-1 modified binder is used to prepare asphalt mixtures for B C grade 1. According to the Marshall method, VG-30 was used to make the job mix, and 5.3 (w/w mix) was found to be the ideal binder content. Marshall Samples were also made with modified binder at the same optimal binder level (i.e. 5.3%) for comparison studies. Different engineering and volumetric qualities, such as retained stability, tensile strength, tensile strength ratio (TSR), marshall stability, flow value, unit weight, and air voids, are determined to analyse the behaviour of traditional and modified bituminous mixes. According to the study, the binder qualities slightly increased, and as a result, bituminous mixes' mechanical properties, including retained stability, indirect tensile strength, and TSR, were also found to have improved. IRC SP-53, 2010, criterion was met by bituminous concrete (BC) mixes created with liquid polymer modified binders. With the addition of liquid polymer and fly ash, the performance of modified mixes was further enhanced, meeting the demands of high-performance characteristics including rutting, thermal cracking, and fatigue.</p> Krushna Chandra Sethi, Ranjan Kumar, Naveen.B.P Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-13 2022-12-13 44 12 54 61 Performance Comparison Algorithms in Wireless Sensor Network http://ytgcxb.periodicales.com/index.php/CJGE/article/view/229 <p>Sensor networks are currently most commonly used in commercial and industrial applications because of their low-power usage. These networks use nodes, which can be either standalone or mobile for various purposes such as in a smart car or to monitor the environment like temperature and pressure. Small networks are now being organized in a more enhanced way. This is exciting as it can be applied in various fields- like the medical, the environmental, the transportation, and more. This paper reviews the performance evaluation of algorithms like Leach and Genetic, which works in environment of Wireless Sensor Networks.</p> Urooj Sultana*, Dinesh Sethi Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-21 2022-12-21 44 12 62 69 Performance analysis of BER and reduction in PAPR in 5G communication using trelliss coding http://ytgcxb.periodicales.com/index.php/CJGE/article/view/230 <p>Our Research Paper “Performance analysis of BER and reduction in PAPR in 5G communication using trelliss coding” is a&nbsp; Channel bank multi-transporter (FBMC) adjustments, and all the more explicitly FBMC-offset quadrature adequacy regulation (OQAM), are viewed as an intriguing option in contrast to symmetrical recurrence division multiplexing (OFDM) for the fifth era radio access innovation. In this paper, we explore the issue of top to-average power proportion (PAPR) decrease for FBMC-OQAM signals. As of late, it has been shown that FBMC-OQAM with lattice based chosen planning (TSLM) conspire not exclusively is better than any plan in view of image by-image approach yet in addition beats that of the OFDM with old style SLM plot. Progressively, the FBMC-OQAM frameworks are acquiring offer in the test for cutting edge multi-transporter regulation (MCM) waveforms for future correspondence frameworks. This exceptional balance plot offers various benefits like superb recurrence confinement in its power otherworldly thickness (PSD), a vigor to stage commotion, recurrence counterbalances and furthermore to the multi-client no concurrence; making it more engaging than OFDM for PMR, mental radio (CR) and 5G Rodent. Nonetheless, similar to some other MCM method, FBMC-OQAM experiences high PAPR. At the point when the power intensifier (Dad) non-linearity, which is reasonable radio-recurrence weakness, is considered; the great recurrence restriction property is seriously compromised, due to the otherworldly regrowth. The primary goal of this PhD postulation is, to anticipate the degree of the ghastly regrowth in FBMC-OQAM frameworks, because of the Dad non-linearity. The subsequent goal is to test strategies for FBMC-OQAM frameworks, for example, PAPR decrease and Dad linearization, to alleviate the NL impacts of Dad. By cumulant examination, unearthly regrowth expectation has been finished for FBMC-OQAM frameworks. Additionally, a few calculations for PAPR decrease, which depend on probabilistic methodology and adding signal techniques, have been proposed.</p> <p>Methods:</p> <p>The concurrence capacity of the FBMC-OQAM based broadband framework with the narrowband PMR frameworks within the sight of Dad has been investigated and it has been observed that conjunction is conceivable, if there is a cooperative blend of Dad Contribution Ease off (IBO), PAPR decrease and Dad linearization. At long last, an original Dad linearization method has been proposed for FBMC-OQAM.</p> <p>Result:</p> <p>The ensuing final product demonstrates via the use of Hamming 1511 code the BER is changes with SNR. The SNR is differs zero to 1 dB and BER is changes from 0.45 to 0.15, this final product is higher than the Hamming 74.сonvolutional coding the SNR is fluctuates from zero to 1 dB and BER is changes from 0.501 to 0.101 and at momentary 1 dB the cost of BER is 0.101, the outcome is scarcely improve as contrast with the Hamming Code.</p> <p>Conclusions:</p> <p>Since FBMC-OQAM signals have high PAPR, there is a desperate need to test for reasonable PAPR decrease plans. This paper is an augmentation of the as of late proposed TSLM. In this paper, the computational intricacy of the TSLM conspire has been determined and low-idleness TSLM has been proposed, which not exclusively can yield mediocre poor or same execution to that of TSLM yet additionally has exceptionally low dormancy and needs less equipment memory.</p> Pragnesh Narendra Shah, Dr. BHARTI CHOURASIA Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-21 2022-12-21 44 12 70 76 Study On Mechanical Properties Of Fibre Reinforced Bacterial Concrete http://ytgcxb.periodicales.com/index.php/CJGE/article/view/231 <p>The most used building material in the world is concrete, which is made of cement aggregate and water. It is a strong, long-lasting substance. However, fissures in concrete are unavoidable and one of the material's intrinsic weaknesses. The main drawback of concrete is that it has low tensile strength, which leads to micro cracks. By enabling corrosive substances to enter the concrete matrix, which causes steel to corrode and lose tensile strength, micro cracks in concrete also reduce durability. Such an occurrence could result in more serious issues like spalling or even premature structural breakdown. Concrete structure maintenance and repair require a lot of labour and money. After construction is complete, it can be challenging to assess the extent of damage. Moisture entering fractures can lead to corrosion, which weakens the entire structure and eventually causes it to collapse. Introduce bacteria now into concrete to lessen these fissures. Self-healing could be the answer. There are numerous methods of self-healing, such as the ability of concrete cracks to self-generate and self-heal. When water seeps into the cracks, bacteria react with it and precipitate calcium carbonate as a byproduct. This fills the crevices and creates concrete that is crack-free. Additionally, while adding Polypropylene Fibers to concrete to increase its strength.</p> K.Kartheek Babu, Dr.S.Kumaravel Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-22 2022-12-22 44 12 77 86 Bio product-based environmentally friendly rice cultivation technology increases rice productivity and farmers' income in Indonesia http://ytgcxb.periodicales.com/index.php/CJGE/article/view/232 <p>Environmentally friendly rice cultivation (EFRC) is an innovative technology for irrigated rice cultivation based on bio products that can optimize the potential of agricultural resources in situ, so that the soil becomes fertile and preserves land resources and the environment. The application of EFRC technology can increase rice productivity to support government programs in the context of realizing sustainable self-sufficiency in Indonesia. The research objective is to apply technically and economically EFRC technology before it is widely developed in Indonesia. The purpose of this study is to determine the level of technical and economic feasibility of implementing EFRC technology before it is widely developed in Indonesia. The study was conducted in West Java Province using the On Farm Client Oriented Adaptive Research (OFCOAR) approach. The experiment was carried out by applying the EFRC technology package by cooperating farmers on an area of 10 ha, then the results were compared with the technology commonly applied by farmers (existing) before the study. Parameters assessed were agronomic performance (plant height, harvest age, number of grains/panicles, weight of 1,000 grains, and productivity), yield gap, and financial feasibility (income, RCR, and BCR). The results of the study showed that by applying EFRC technology, the agronomic performance of rice plants (plant height, number of grains per panicle, weight of 1,000 grains) was close to and some even exceeded the yield potential of the varieties planted. The average rice productivity increased by 23.62% and was financially profitable with an R/C Ratio greater than one, compared to existing technology. Thus, EFRC technology is technically and financially feasible to be developed more widely in Indonesia. There are still individual farmer factors that can produce yield gaps, so that before the program development is implemented, technical guidance and/or training to farmers is needed.</p> Nana Sutrisna*, Yanto Surdianto, Bambang Susanto, Yati Haryati, Meksy Dianawati, Wiratno, Rachmiwati Yusuf, Parlin Haloan Sinaga, Anis Fahri, Sunjaya Putra, Kiki Kusyaeri Hamdani, Agus Nurawan, Saidah, Paulina Evy Retnaning Prahardini, Damas Riyanto, Muha Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-20 2022-12-20 44 12 87 97 GROWTH AND YIELD OF MUSTARD (Brassica juncea L.) WITH THE USE OF LIQUID COMPLEMENTARY FERTILIZERS (LCF) AND UREA FERTILIZERS http://ytgcxb.periodicales.com/index.php/CJGE/article/view/233 <p>Mustard is one of the horticultural commodities that have commercial value and is favored by the people of Indonesia. And one of the efforts to increase the yield of mustard plants is to perform optimal cultivation techniques, including fertilization. The purpose of the study was to determine the dose of urea fertilizer with liquid complementary fertilizer on the growth and yield&nbsp; of mustard greens. The study was conducted in Moncongbalang Village, Barombong District, Gowa Regency, South Sulawesi, in February-April 2019. The study used a Randomized Block Design (RBD) consisting of 8 treatments with 4 replications. The arrangement of treatments was as follows: P1= Urea 200 kg-1; P2= manure 20 t ha-1+ Urea 200 kg ha-1; P3= Urea 200 kg ha-1+10 cc LFC; P4= Urea 150 kg ha-1+10 cc LFC; P5= Urea 100 kg ha-1+10 cc LFC, P6= Urea 200 kg ha-1+15 cc LFC; P7= Urea 150 kg ha-1+15 cc LFC, and P8=Urea 100 kg ha-1+15 cc LFC. Parameters observed were plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, fresh weight of shoots and roots, fresh weight of plants, and yield of mustard greens and economic analysis. The results showed that the combination of Urea fertilizer 150 kg ha-1+15 cc PPC gave the highest yield compared to other treatments, namely 5.8 t ha-1with an R/C ratio of 2.17.</p> M. Basir Nappu, Idaryani, Susilawati, Andi Yulyani Fadwiwati, Dewi Sahara, Cahyati Setiani, Sri Bananik Sagiman, Dahya, Andi Apriany Fatmawaty, Lis M. Yapanto, Suriany, Emi Sugiartini Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-23 2022-12-23 44 12 98 105 Municipal Solid Waste Landfills Construction and Management http://ytgcxb.periodicales.com/index.php/CJGE/article/view/234 <p>:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In Any city, one of the serious issues is civil strong administration (MSW) because of truly expanding waste amount alongside its changing waste qualities. Civil strong waste incorporates non-unsafe waste created in house, foundations, business and business foundations in a metropolitan region. As city develop and deliver more civil strong waste and their waste assortment frameworks become more proficient, due the ecological effect from dump site turns out to be progressively deplorable. A report on squander the executives arranged for the Public authority of India (1998) by a sub-council of the High Court depicts what is happening. The civil bodies in Any have been not able to deal with the fast changes that have prompted both expanded squander amounts and changes in the waste arrangement this prompting an over-stacking of the help. MSW rules don't allow to dump blended squander in direct land filling and subsequently, the waste should be isolated to gather and reuse all recyclable and the natural matter should be settled. The created and gathered MSW should be handled/treated with just non-biodegradable MSW and the oddballs of the handling office being unloaded in landfill. Leachate radiating from strong waste kept in landfill have broken up or an entrained naturally unsafe substances. By and large, ecological effects and monetary harms of poor leachate the executives rehearses on groundwater and it are not obviously perceived to get surface waters. With this unique situation, this review, the idea of leachate contamination record, a device for evaluating the leachate contamination potential and water quality file for encompassing water collections of Mavallipura landfill site in Any has been applied. It has been found that the leachate created from the Mavallipura landfill site has high defilement potential to the encompassing water bodies. The outcomes uncovered that nature of ground water assets in Mavallipura landfill is breaking down generally, because of the unfortunate act of strong waste administration. Consequently, a viable medicinal arrangement should be ready for the manageable water quality support of the area.</p> Chougale M P*, Prof. (Dr.) Reena Singh & Prof. (Dr.) B.K. Sarkar Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-20 2022-12-20 44 12 106 111 Building A Composite Field Test And Determining Its Standard Levels For Measuring Concentration, Attention Diversion And Scoring Accuracy For First-Class Futsal Club Players In Al-Qadisiyah Governorate http://ytgcxb.periodicales.com/index.php/CJGE/article/view/235 <p>The aim of the research is to design a composite field test and determine its standard levels to measure the concentration, conversion of attention and scoring accuracy of the players of first-class futsal clubs, because the tests designed to measure these two mental abilities are done through paper and pen and testing in this way does not give accurate results to measure the ability to move away from the embodiment and representation of reality The actual and playing conditions during the match, so the researchers resorted to designing this test for two reasons. The first is to address the deficiencies in the previously prepared tests, and the second is that these tests were measured separately, which is not true. The two abilities are inseparable and the player needs them at the same time. shortcomings.As for the imposition of the research, it was represented in the effectiveness of the test on measuring the focus, attention transfer and scoring accuracy of the players of the first-class clubs in futsal. Their number is (84) players, and the research sample was chosen by a simple random method (lottery), which included (44) players for the purpose of construction and (40) players for the purpose of legalization.And after preparing the appropriate test tools and devices to conduct it, it was presented to experts and specialists to demonstrate its validity and make the appropriate adjustments. standards for first-class futsal club players, and the researchers concluded the effectiveness of the test on measuring the focus, attention transfer, and scoring accuracy of futsal players.</p> Dr. Adnan Naghish Hassan, Ali Yaqoub Yusuf, Dr. Ahmed Fahem Naghish Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-20 2022-12-20 44 12 112 117 Comparison Study on the Effect of Different Additives on the Geotechnical Behavior of Expansive Soil http://ytgcxb.periodicales.com/index.php/CJGE/article/view/237 <p>Expansive clay soils are found all across the world and cause significant harm to structures and infrastructures. When expansive soil absorbs water, it expands and contracts due to variations of moisture content. Civil engineering structures constructed on expansive soil often suffer severe damage as a result of their dramatic volume change. A mitigation strategy can involve improving the ground using mechanical or chemical techniques.&nbsp; In this study, chemical stabilization was employed as a ground-improving strategy. The investigation was done to compare the changes in the properties of expansive soil with marble powder, limestone powder and glass powder at different percentages. In this study, the impact of marble powder, limestone powder and glass powder on consistency, standard proctor test, one-dimensional consolidation, unconfined compressive strength (UCS), Energy–Dispersive X- Ray (EDX), chemical composition, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) compared. Marble powder content and limestone powder content ranged from 6%, 12%, 18%, 24%, 30% and 36%, and glass powder content ranged from 6%, 12%, 18%, 27%, and 36% (all based on the weight of powders to the weight of dry soil). The additives were positively affected on the soil properties at the early percentages. All additives at 18% considerably decreased optimum moisture content and consistency limits, while the maximum dry unit weight and UCS increased.&nbsp; .</p> Chrakhan Amjed Hwayyiz, Ahmed Mohammed Hasan, Rizgar Ali Hummadi, Hawkar Hashim Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2023 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 44 12 118 133 Influence of Swelling Rock with Drying-Wetting Cycles on Stability of Canal Slope http://ytgcxb.periodicales.com/index.php/CJGE/article/view/240 <p>This study zeroed in on the enlarging conduct of expanding rock from channel cellar under various drying-wetting (D-W) cycles. A progression of research center tests were led on an enlarging rock, with the breaking and strength ways of behaving examined. By utilizing picture handling method, the break designs were depicted, and afterward quantitatively broke down based on the fractal aspect. The trial information demonstrated that ability to expand, including breaking level, fractal aspect, and strength, decline with expanding drying and wetting cycle. On this premise, a progression of rotator model recreations for reproducing incline disappointment by drying-wetting cycles were performed, where the drying system was accomplished by heat bulbs. The checking results recommended that a worldwide incline disappointment has happened after all out pattern of fourth comparing to 4 years. Because of the advancement of surface breaking, the penetration in the slant was extreme and nonuniform in reality. In the interim, the disappointment component of delicate stone slant prompted by D-W was examined.&nbsp; .</p> Dr. Ravindra D Nalawade, Prof. (Dr.) B.K. Sarkar, Prof. (Dr.) Reena Singh Copyright (c) 2023 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 44 12 134 139 Use of Natural Fiber-Reinforced Polymers in the Automotive Industry: A Comprehensive Review http://ytgcxb.periodicales.com/index.php/CJGE/article/view/253 <p>In this research work, an in-depth review of natural fiber-reinforced polymers and their applications, mainly in the production of automotive parts, is carried out. These materials have some properties that can meet the new regulations established to protect the environment. This article shows the properties of some polymers, natural and an-made fibers, and the polymers reinforced with them, thus forming a new composite material and the parts made from these materials. It also mentions the leaders in the automotive sector and the plastic parts used in different vehicles.</p> Edwin Pozo* & Miguel Escobar Copyright (c) 2023 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 44 12 140 150 A Study of Thermal Analysis in Friction Stirs Welding Using Finite Element Analysis http://ytgcxb.periodicales.com/index.php/CJGE/article/view/254 <p>Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a welding method developed by The Welding Institute (TWI) in England. It is a new concept in solid phase friction stir welding especially suitable for the welding of aluminum and its alloys and offers interesting aspects and can in many cases replace the usual arc welding processes with an advantage. The welding equipment consists of a tool that rotates and moves over the joint of two restrained sheets 2. The joint is produced by the frictional heating of the two sheets, resulting in a pasty/viscous behavior of the material and the corresponding flow between the sheets to be joined. Numerical modeling of the process makes it possible to predict behavior without the need for specific tests, thus speeding up the design process, lowering costs, and optimizing the technological variables to be used 3, 4. In this work, the friction stir welding process is modeled using a general-purpose finite element program, reproducing the heat map and the material flow distribution. Experimental developments are presented with temperature distribution measurements obtained by thermography and their comparative analysis with the numerical results.</p> Miguel Escobar* & Edwin Pozo Copyright (c) 2023 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 44 12 151 160 Synthesis and Characterization of the Mechanical Properties of a New Polymer and Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Slab Material for Bridges http://ytgcxb.periodicales.com/index.php/CJGE/article/view/255 <p>This paper presents the experimental determination of the mechanical and structural properties of a bridge slab constructed with Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP), specifically vinyl ester resin reinforced with E-glass fibers (E-glass). The fibers were used in the form of a two-dimensional stitched fabric (NCF) and, for the first time, a three-dimensional braid. The slab is constructed by bonding beams with a triangular cross-section and two flat plates that form the top and bottom surfaces of the panel. The material was first characterized at the level of coupon-sized specimens, where its physical and mechanical properties were determined. The structural properties of the beams were determined by bending tests where a three-potentiometer arrangement was used to simultaneously measure vertical and lateral deflections and rotation, including the use of a gravity load simulator. Finally, the flexural properties of the panel were determined by testing four prototypes of the five-cell wide slabs. High variability was found in the 3-D braided reinforced material, but this was used to reinforce the beams in the final prototype. The prototypes supported 5.5 times the design load, so it was concluded that the design of these systems is dominated by deflection limit and not by resistance capacity. It was recommended that design methodologies be developed where design models are calibrated with experimental data and material variability values using reliability methodologies.</p> Danielita Borja*, Miguel Escobar, Edwin Pozo Copyright (c) 2023 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 44 12 61 75